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deutsch pole - yourA device according to one or several of claims 1 - 21, characterised in that the permanent magnets 36 , on the outer surfaces, have a different pole strength, pole structure, i. Wagen Deichsel feminine Femininum f pole shaft: Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch the pole is firm in its base. Nejc Dezman moved up from 19th to seventh with the second-best jump in the final round and was by far their best.. Nejc Dezman moved up from 19th to seventh with the second-best jump in the final round and was by far their best. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch to be poles apart. Rührstock masculine Maskulinum m pole stick for mixing. Ihr mit Abstand Bester war diesmal Nejc Dezman, der sich mit dem zweitbesten Sprung im Finale von Platz 19 auf sieben verbessern konnte.. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Totem Poles of the Pacific Northwest Coast. The Indian Arts and Crafts Board, A federal government agency, facilitated their sale to euro 2019 drittplatzierte general public. Volksdeutsche of statuses 1 and 2 in the Polish areas annexed by Germany numbered 1,, and Nos. In the sixteenth century Vasili III invited small numbers of craftsmen, traders and professionals to settle in Russia from areas that would later migliori casino online europei Germany so that Muscovy could exploit their skills. These include imitations made for commercial and even comedic use in venues that serve alcohol, and in other settings that are insensitive or outright offensive to the sacred nature of some joker mastercard login the carvings. It is not known if the debt was ever vortex poker 3. Some of these enlisted and fought in the German army. They faced the choice of registering and being regarded china championship snooker traitors by other Poles, or not signing and being treated by the Big brother quoten occupation as traitors druzhba the Germanic "race". The Austrian Germans also found themselves not allowed to join Germany as German Austria was strictly forbidden to join Germany as well as the name "German Austria" was forbidden so the name was changed klaus augenthaler familie to just "Austria" and the First Austrian Republic was created in Once the pole is upright, the trench is filled with rocks and dirt.
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The poles may also serve as functional architectural features, welcome signs for village visitors, mortuary vessels for the remains of deceased ancestors, or as a means to publicly ridicule someone.
They may embody a historical narrative of significance to the people carving and installing the pole.
Totem poles are the largest, but not the only, objects that coastal Pacific Northwest natives use to depict spiritual reverence, family legends, sacred beings and culturally important animals, people, or historical events.
Stylistic features of these poles were borrowed from earlier, smaller prototypes, or from the interior support posts of house beams.
Although 18th-century accounts of European explorers traveling along the coast indicate that decorated interior and exterior house posts existed prior to , the posts were smaller and fewer in number than in subsequent decades.
Prior to the 19th century, the lack of efficient carving tools, along with sufficient wealth and leisure time to devote to the craft, delayed the development of elaborately carved, freestanding poles.
The process was slow and laborious; axes were unknown. By the late eighteenth century, the use of metal cutting tools enabled more complex carvings and increased production of totem poles.
Eddie Malin has proposed that totem poles progressed from house posts, funerary containers, and memorial markers into symbols of clan and family wealth and prestige.
He argues that the Haida people of the islands of Haida Gwaii originated carving of the poles, and that the practice spread outward to the Tsimshian and Tlingit , and then down the coast to the indigenous people of British Columbia and northern Washington.
Accounts from the s describe and illustrate carved poles and timber homes along the coast of the Pacific Northwest. In the 19th century, American and European trade and settlement initially led to the growth of totem pole carving, but United States and Canadian policies and practices of acculturation and assimilation caused a decline in the development of Alaska Native and First Nations cultures and their crafts, and sharply reduced totem pole production by the end of the century.
Between and , the maritime fur trade , mining, and fisheries gave rise to an accumulation of wealth among the coastal peoples. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, before the passage of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act in , the practice of Native religion was outlawed, and traditional indigenous cultural practices were also strongly discouraged by Christian missionaries.
This included the carving of totem poles. Missionaries urged converts to cease production and destroy existing poles. Nearly all totem pole making had ceased by Beginning in the late s, a combination of cultural, linguistic , and artistic revivals, along with scholarly interest and the continuing fascination and support of an educated and empathetic public, led to a renewal and extension of this artistic tradition.
Totem poles can symbolize the characters and events in mythology, or convey the experiences of recent ancestors and living people.
Pole carvings may include animals, fish, plants, insects, and humans, or they may represent supernatural beings such as the Thunderbird.
Consistent use of a specific character over time, with some slight variations in carving style, helped develop similarities among these shared symbols that allowed people to recognize one from another.
The meanings of the designs on totem poles are as varied as the cultures that make them. Some poles celebrate cultural beliefs that may recount familiar legends, clan lineages, or notable events, while others are mostly artistic.
Some of the figures on the poles constitute symbolic reminders of quarrels, murders, debts, and other unpleasant occurrences about which the Native Americans prefer to remain silent The most widely known tales, like those of the exploits of Raven and of Kats who married the bear woman, are familiar to almost every native of the area.
Carvings which symbolize these tales are sufficiently conventionalized to be readily recognizable even by persons whose lineage did not recount them as their own legendary history.
Those from cultures that do not carve totem poles often assume that the linear representation of the figures places the most importance on the highest figure, an idea that became pervasive in the dominant culture after it entered into mainstream parlance by the s with the phrase "low man on the totem pole"  and as the title of a bestselling humor book by H.
However, Native sources either reject the linear component altogether, or reverse the hierarchy, with the most important representations on the bottom, bearing the weight of all the other figures, or at eye level with the viewer to heighten their significance.
There are six basic types of totem poles: This type of pole, usually 20 to 40 feet tall  is the most decorative. Its carvings tell the story of the family, clan or village who own them.
These poles are also known as heraldic, crest, or family poles. Poles of this type are placed outside the clan house of the most important village leaders.
Another type of house frontal pole is the entrance or doorway pole, which is attached to the center front of the home and includes an oval-shaped opening through the base that serves as the entrance to the clan house.
These interior poles, typically 7 to 10 feet in height, are usually shorter than exterior poles. The rarest type of totem pole is a mortuary structure that incorporates grave boxes with carved supporting poles or includes a recessed back to hold the grave box.
It is among the tallest and most prominent poles, reaching 50 to 70 feet in height. Ashes or the body of the deceased person are placed in the upper portion of the pole.
This type of pole, which usually stands in front of a clan house, is erected about a year after a person has died. Traditionally, the memorial pole has one carved figure at the top, but an additional figure may also be added at the bottom of the pole.
Memorial poles may also commemorate an event. For example, several memorial totem poles were erected by the Tlingits in honor of Abraham Lincoln, one of which was relocated to Saxman , Alaska, in S, revenue cutter Lincoln to patrol the area.
After American soldiers at the fort and aboard the Lincoln provided protection to the Tongass group against its rival, the Kagwantans, the Tongass group commissioned the Lincoln pole to commemorate the event.
Heinrich Himmler was sufficiently impressed by the Volksdeutsche communities and the work of the Selbstschutz to order that these methods be copied in Ukraine.
It was conspicuous in its operations against the Yugoslav Partisans and civilian population. About , ethnic Germans from the Nazi-conquered former Yugoslavia joined the German Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS, the majority conscripted involuntarily as judged by the Nuremberg Trials.
Yet "[a]fter the initial rush of Volksdeutsche to join, voluntary enlistments tapered off, and the new unit did not reach division size. Therefore, in August , the SS discarded the voluntary approach, and after a favourable judgement from the SS court in Belgrade, imposed a mandatory military obligation on all Volksdeutsche in Serbia-Banat, the first of its kind for non-Reich Germans.
Most ethnic Germans fled or were expelled from European countries Czechia, Slovakia, Poland and Hungary under the Potsdam Agreement from to towards the end and after the war.
Both those who became ethnic Germans by registering in the Deutsche Volksliste and Reichsdeutsche retained German citizenship during the years of Allied military occupation, after the establishment of East Germany and West Germany in , and later in the reunified Germany.
France, which was not represented in Potsdam, rejected the decision of the Three of Potsdam and did not absorb expellees in its zone of occupation.
The three Allies had to accept the reality on the ground, since expulsions of Volksdeutsche and Central and Eastern European nationals of German or alleged German ethnicity who never had enrolled as Volksdeutsche, was going on already.
Local authorities forced most of the remaining ethnic Germans to leave between and Remnants of the ethnic German community survive in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia.
There are also remnant German populations near Mukachevo in western Ukraine. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the origins and historical use of the term Volksdeutsche.
For the article about some of the people this term describes, see ethnic Germans. Volksdeutsche from Sudetendeutsches Freikorps in Czechoslovakia Arthur Greiser welcoming the millionth resettler of German ethnicity during the " Heim ins Reich " action from Central and Eastern Europe to occupied Poland - March Volksdeutsche resettling after the Soviet occupation of Central and Eastern Poland.
Volkdeutsche resettling after the Soviet occupation of Bukovina and Bessarabia in . Resettled Baltic Germans take possession of their new homes in Warthegau after the forced abandonment by the legitimate Polish owners.
Baltic German settlers are shown around their new possession in occupied Poland in November Flight and expulsion of Germans — S-Z , , p.
A Historical Profile , Berkeley: University of California Press, pp. While the Prussian Settlement Commission established in the Bismarck era could in the course of two decades bring no more than 11, families to the eastern territories, Frederick settled a total of 57, This, too, was a long standing trope.
David Blackbourn, James N. Retallack, Localism, Landscape, and the Ambiguities of Place: The art of persuasion: Kennard to Viscount Halifax August 24, Retrieved 11 September Ambiguity and Compromise in the Holocaust and Its Aftermath , page The Origins of the Final Solution: Der Mustergau Wartheland, Waxmann Verlag, , pp.
Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart , Munich: Righting Wrongs in Eastern Europe. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, , pp. LIT Verlag , , pp.
German heritage alive in Transcarpathian Ukraine. Belgium France Netherlands United Kingdom. Namibia South Africa Afrikaners.
Ostsiedlung Flight and expulsion of Germans — Retrieved from " https: German diaspora Ethnonyms German words and phrases.
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The lower end is braced or set in a shallow hole and positioned so the upper end lies above the object to be lifted. The pole also known as a mast , boom , or spar is secured with three or more guys.
These are manipulated to move the load laterally,  with up and down controlled by the pulley or block. Gin pole can also use a guide for building a tower.
The gin pole is considered a form of derrick , called standing derrick or pole derrick ,  distinguished from sheers or shear legs by having a single boom rather than a two-legged one.
When used to create a segmented tower, the gin pole can be detached, raised, and re-attached to the just-completed segment in order to lift the next.
This process of jumping is repeated until the topmost portion of the tower is completed.